Srirangapattana or Srirangapatna is a town in the Mandya district of Karnataka, near the city of Mysore.
Although situated a mere 13 km from Mysore city, Srirangapattana lies in the neighbouring district of Mandya. The entire town is enclosed by the river Kaveri to form an island. While the main river flows on the eastern side of the island, the Paschima Vaahini segment of the same river flows to its west. The town is easily accessible by train from Bangalore and Mysore and is also well-connected by road, lying as it does just off the Bangalore-Mysore highway. The highway passes through this town and special care was taken to minimize any impact on the monuments here.
The town takes its name from the celebrated Ranganathaswamy temple which dominates the town, making Srirangapattana one of the most important Vaishnavite centers of pilgrimage in south India. The temple was built by the Ganga dynasty rulers of the area in the 9th century; the structure was strengthened and improved upon architecturally some three centuries later. Thus, the temple is a medley of the Hoysala and Vijayanagar styles of temple architecture.
Tradition holds that all the islands formed in the Kaveri River are consecrated to Sri Ranganathaswamy, and large temples have been built in very ancient times dedicated to that deity on the three largest islands. These three towns, which constitute the main pilgrimage centers dedicated to Ranganathaswamy, are:
- Adi Ranga - at Srirangapattana
- Madhya Ranga - at Shivanasamudra
- Antya Ranga - at Srirangam
The presence of the Kaveri River is in itself considered auspicious and sanctifying. The Paschima Vaahini section of the Kaveri at Srirangapattana is considered especially sacred; the pious come from far and wide to immerse the ashes of the departed and perform obsequies to their ancestors in these waters.
History of Srirangapattana
Srirangapattana has since time immemorial been an urban center and place of pilgrimage. During the Vijayanagar empire, it became the seat of a major viceroyalty, from where several nearby vassal states of the empire, such as Mysore and Talakad, were overseen. When, perceiving the decline of the Vijayanagar empire, the rulers of Mysore ventured to assert independence, Srirangapattana was their first target. Raja Wodeyar vanquished Rangaraya, the then viceroy of Srirangapattana, in 1610 and celebrated the Navaratri festival in the town that year. It came to be accepted in time that two things demonstrated control and signified sovereignty over the Kingdom of Mysore by any claimant to the throne:
- Successful holding of the 10-day-long Navaratri festival, dedicated to Durga, patron goddess of Mysore;
- Control of the fort of Srirangapattana, the fortification nearest to the capital city of Mysore.
Srirangapattana remained part of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1610 to after India's independence in 1947; as the fortress closest to the capital city of Mysore, it was the last bastion and defence of the kingdom in case of invasion.
Srirangapattana became the de facto capital of Mysore under Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. When Tipu finally dispensed with the charade of deference to the legitimate Wodeyar Maharaja who was actually his captive, and proclaimed the "Khudadad State" under his own kingship, Srirangapattana became de jure the capital of that short-lived political entity. In that heady period, the state ruled by Tipu extended its frontiers in every direction, encompassing a major portion of South India. Srirangapattana flourished as the cosmopolitan capital of this powerful state. Various Indo-Islamic monuments that dot the town, such as Tipu Sultan's palaces, the Darya Daulat and the Jumma Maseedi (Friday congregational mosque), date from this period.
Battle of Seringapatam, 1799: Srirangapattana was the scene of the last and decisive battle fought between Tipu Sultan and the British forces led by General Harris. This battle was the last engagement of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. The Battle of Seringapatam, 1799, was truly momentous in its historic effects.
In any event, Tipu Sultan was killed within the fort of Srirangapattana, betrayed infamously by one of his own confidants; the spot where he ultimately fell is marked by a memorial. For the last time in history, Srirangapattana had been the scene of political change in the Kingdom of Mysore. Having secured the victory, the British proceeded to plunder Srirangapattana and ransack Tipu's palace. Apart from the usual gold and cash, innumerable valuables and objects d'art, not excepting even the personal effects of Tipu Sultan, his rich clothes and shoes, sword and firearms, were shipped to England. While most of this is now to be found in the British Royal Collection and in the Victoria and Albert Museum, some articles have occasionally become available at auctions and have been retrieved for their native land. The sword of Tipu Sultan has been acquired by Vijay Mallya, a liquor king from Karnataka, who purchased the same at a Sotheby's auction.
Places of Tourist Interest
The town is famous for a very ancient temple dedicated to Sri Ranganathaswamy, a form of Lord Vishnu. Other attractions include the Jumma Masjid (a Mosque) and the Daria Daulat Gardens. Near Srirangapattana is the Rangantittu Bird Sanctuary, which is the breeding site for several bird species, including the Painted Stork, Open-billed Stork, Black-headed Ibis, River Tern, Great Stone Plover and Indian Shag. The Karighatta (Black Hill) and its temple of Lord Srinivasa is situated a few kilometres from the town. The deity is that of Kari-giri-vasa (one who resides on the black hill). The famous Nimishambha temple is located in the near by district of Ganjam. The summer palace of Tipu Sultan is also a very interesting pace.
Waterfalls Near Srirangapattana
Located 27 km upstream from the Srirangapattana is the spectacular Shivanasamudra (Shivanasamudram) Falls, the second biggest waterfall in India and the sixteenth largest in the world. Balmuri falls is also in Srirangapattana Taluk in Mandya Dist. Gaganachukki and Barachukki falls in Shivanasamudram are also famous waterfalls near Srirangapattana
Shivanasamudra Falls, Karnataka
Balmuri Falls, Karnataka
Hotels, Boarding & Accomodation In Srirangapattana
Ganjam near Srirangapatna
Ganjam a small village but unique in some respects with a glorious past tradition in jewelry and fig fruit. The village is in the outskirts of Srirangapatna town but for all practical purposes is a part of the town. Ganjam has one temple with a powerful Devi idol and had a French connection.
Ganjam is a small old village in the outskirts of Srirangapatna town in Srirangapatna Taluk. Though it is not known much to the people outside and even in many parts of the State it had a fame and reputation as a village of artisans in jewellery. Ganjam was once the jewelry making center of Karnataka like Surat of Gujarat. It was famous for delicate and intricate ornaments. Due to the introduction of mechanization and automation in the jewelry industry, the Ganjam village lost out in its glorious tradition in this field to the modernization. Now the only connection may the name of some of the jewelry shops with the name Ganjam attached to them. The village was also known for the special Ganjam Fig fruits. The horticulturists here used to grow a special and very popular variety of fig known as Ganjam fig (Ganjam anjura) fruit. Now due to the cash crops taking over the available land, like the sugar cane the fig cultivation has lost out the race. Now Ganjam people can only have a nostalgia about these two unique fields of activities of the villagers.
Nimishamba Temple, Ganjam
Ganjam village is famous for a temple. The temple of Nimishamba, Nimisha means a minute and amba means Devi. The temple is very famous throughout Karnataka and in many ears of the Southern States. The belief is that the goddess grants the wish of the devotee in a minute because of which the name of Nimishamba was bestowed on her by her loving devotees. The goddess is Parvathy the consort o f Lord Siva. There is a Sri Chakra also in the sanctum. The idol of the Devi and the Sri Chakra are carved out of black stones. Next to this temple is another shrine. This shrine is dedicated to Lord Moukthikeswara, the Lord Siva. The Nimishamba temple was built by the Mysore Maharaja Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar about 400 years back. Devotees from far and near come here to worship the Devi and get her blessings. Most of also spend some time near the river. Devotees offer lemon and garland made out of lemons the goddess. Few of the lemons are returned to the devotees after keeping near the Devi in the pooja room. The devotees carry the lemons so received and keep them in their pooja room/place at home and worship for few days. After few days the lemons will be immersed in wells or ponds or river. Another offering to the Devi is sarees by devotees. Devotees flock on Fridays, Varamahalakshmi festival and Durgashtami during the Navarathri to offer prayers. The local people sell fresh vegetables on the bank of the river near the temple. Special darsan tickets are available for Rs 10/- for quick darsan. The temple is on the bank of one branch of River Cauvery in Ganjam.
On the other side of the river on a hill, Karigatta hill is another temple the temple of Lord Narasimha. This temple is about 3 km from Srirangapatna.
Temples in Srirangapatna
Karighatta Srinivasa Temple is in Karighatta a hill near Srirangapatna in Mysore, Karnataka. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple - This beautiful ancient temple is located in Srirangapattana which is in the district of Mandya.